Power consumption: To provide running water supply 24x7 in kitchen, bathrooms and utility areas various motor pump sets are used extensively in households and apartment buildings. Electrical energy is required for two components of water provision: pumping and treatment (before and after use). Almost 40% of RWA (resident welfare association) electricity usage is utilised for operating motor pump sets only. The rating of motor pump is given in HP. One HP motor pump set consumes 0.75 units per hour. The efficiency of a well maintained pump is around 50 to 60%.
Statistics: : The usage of electrical pumps for various applications like lifting the water to overhead tanks, for gardening purpose is increasing day by day. The Indian pump market is rising at a faster rate to grow at CAGR of 12.76 % over a period of 2014-2019. Consumers also have developed a preference for energy efficient ones i.e. 5 star rated pumps. Submersible pumps are most growing in the market compared to self-prime regenerative pumps due to their low power consumption and maintenance free operation.
Self-Prime Regenerative Pumps: These pumps are suitable for handling clear cold fresh water, free from abrasive particles and chemically aggressive substances. Suitable for domestic water supply, lawn sprinklers, gardens, etc.
Centrifugal-pumps: These pumps have higher water discharge rate compared to regenerative pumps, excellent hydraulic performance and higher operating efficiency compared to regenerative pumps with lower maintenance costs.
These pumps are suitable for domestic water supply, lawn sprinklers, gardens, small farms, draining of wells and tanks, filling water in swimming pools, etc.
: A Submersible pump is essentially a centrifugal pump, with a sealed motor which is completely submerged in water bodies, especially open wells and bore wells. They are an efficient and wiser choice since they do not require any priming as they are already submerged into water. The submersible pumps are popular due to their low power consumption and maintenance of high pressure to lift the water to high head ranges.
Hydraulic pressure pumps
: Hydraulic pumps are capable of pushing large amounts of water through hydraulic cylinders or hydraulic motors. The pump converts the mechanical energy of the drive (i.e. torque, speed) into hydrostatic energy (i.e. flow, pressure). These pumps are very suitable to operate at high system pressures.
To reduce power consumption:
Always use 5-star rated motor pumps for energy efficiency and low electricity bill.
Check phase sequence of motor, if you are using 3-phase power supply i.e. if the order of the of input power supply phases is R-Y-B then motor phases should be in the same order R-Y-B, otherwise it causes more amount of currents and may damage the motor windings.
Make sure that the motor satisfies your desired head, discharge range otherwise it causes additional power loss, extra burden on the motor causes excessive power consumption and may leads to permanent damage of the motor pump.
If you are using sensors to measure the water levels in overhead tank, make sure that the sensors work efficiently otherwise it may cause more power loss and inefficiency of motor due to unnecessary turn-on or turn-off of motor.
To improve efficiency:
Check the working of starter. Starter limits high amount of starting currents. If the starter is not working properly, then motor draws high amount of currents and these high initial currents may damage the motor windings.
Check the condenser frequently for having better power factor and voltage levels at the output. Condenser problems can be detected by the vibrations in the motor pump.
Power consumption: Lighting contributes to 17% of power consumption.So, there is a need for energy efficient lighting. CFL bulbs came into market as an energy efficient model. But now LEDs play the role of most efficient energy consumers. 12% of LED lights sold are consumed in India.
Statistics: : In the beginning of 2014, 1 out of 50 bulbs sold was a LED. By end of 2014, it has reached 1 in 20. LED market is expected to grow at CAGR of 32% between 2015-2020. From 2001-2010, CFL market share has increased by 30%. A 3 star LED bulb saves around Rs 42/- per year when it replaces a CFL and around Rs 318/- per year when it replaces an incandescent bulb. A 3 star LED bulb will also reduce 6.8 kg of CO2, when it replaces a CFL and around 51.5 kg of CO2 when it replaces an incandescent bulb .
Types: :These are roughly 4 types of lightings for households -CFL(including tubelights), halogen, LED and incandescent. For a brightness of 800 lumens, incandescent bulb uses 60W whereas CFL and LED use 20W and 9W respectively. LEDs use less energy and also have a longer life compared to other types. These are the reasons behind the growth in LED market.
One of the best energy-saving devices is the light switch. Turn off lights when not required.. As far as possible use task lighting, which focuses light where it's needed. A reading lamp, for example, lights only reading material rather than the whole room.
Generally lower wattage bulbs have a longer life because they are not so stressed by heat.
Consider employing infrared sensors, motion sensors, automatic timers, dimmers and solar cells wherever applicable, to switch on/off lighting circuits. Upto 40% reduction in energy consumption can be observed when these sensors are used in a private office.
A daylight sensor is also available which sets the brightness of bulbs depending on natural light available.
Replace your electricity-guzzling ordinary bulbs (incandescent lamps) with more efficient types. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) use up to 75 percent less electricity than incandescent lamps. LEDs use up to 50% less electricity than CFLs.
For a LED of small wattage(3W), use lesser beam angle(less than or equal to 30°) for better focus.
When bulbs are placed near to each other, use a small beam angle so that light beams do not intersect. When bulbs are placed at a distance from each other, use a larger beam angle so that the whole space gets illuminated.
Disposal of a CFL bulb should be done carefully because it contains mercury. It should be sent to hazardous waste collectors and not be disposed directly.
While selecting size of your DG make sure that it satisfies your load demand
Never place fire components near by a DG.
Ensure proper ventilation, never run a generator indoor.
Noise: Consider the noise factor while selecting the DG.
Never run a DG under low fuel condition, which damage the set. There are few models available in the market with a special feature, automatic shutdown under low fuel conditions.
Better to stay away from the DG as it may release hazardous gases like carbon monoxide
Avoid loose wiring connections, diesel leakages
A diesel generator is the combination of diesel engine with an electric generator (often an alternator) to generate electrical energy. The packaged combination of a diesel engine, a generator and various ancillary devices (such as base, canopy, sound attenuation, control systems,circuit breakers, jacket water heaters and starting system) is referred to as a "generating set" or a "gen set" for short. Generating sets are selected based on the electrical load they are intended to supply.
Efficiency of diesel generator sets is expressed as a combined efficiency of its two sub-components. Typically, the combined efficiency of diesel generator sets varies between 30-55% while stand-alone efficiency of diesel engine and alternator ranges between 35-60% and 85-95% respectively.
A modern diesel plant will at its near-optimal 65-70% loading, generate 3 kWh (units) of electricity per litre.
India's diesel genset market has seen steady growth due to power supply shortages and unreliable grid supply. The following are some statistics pertaining to the diesel generator in India :
About 0.22 million number of diesel generator sets having combined generation capacity of about 17,000 MW sold in 2015.
The diesel generator market (up to 100 KVA) is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of around 11% in value terms during 2014-2018. As the demand for genset is growing progressively, the diesel genset market is expecting to reach worth of $2.4 billion by 2021.
Diesel gensets with ratings 5 KVA to 3000 KVA are available. The 5KVA to 75 KVA range diesel gensets are widely sold in Indian market due to its ease of availability, and low cost
They are the smallest sized generators that are used by many people for their portability. They deliver a power output of 3KVA to 15 KVA and can be used to power small appliances in the house. Also, due to their portability factor, these generators can be taken during outings or camping.
Residential Standby Generators:
These generators automatically restore power to your house within twenty seconds during load shedding. When power is restored, the generator switches off automatically. These standby generators can be stationed outside your house and have a high power rating, from 15KVA to 75 KVA. They are capable of working in any weather condition and are wired to your houses electrical system
Commercial Standby Generators:
These generators are suitable for business institutions, high rise buildings having more number of flats. They have a capacity of up to 1000KVA of power. These heavy-duty generators are powered by water-cooled diesel engines. They are equipped with automatic transfer switch, which immediately starts the generator when there is a power cut. These generators can be set up in large institutions, farms, building, nursing homes and hospitals among various others places.