Power consumption: Air Conditioners are the major consumers of power in homes as well as work places. Rating of an AC is measure by its tonnage. For example a 1.5 ton AC consumes around 1.5 units of electricity per hour. Based on their power consumption ACs are categorised into various star ratings by BEE(Bureau of Energy Efficiency).
Statistics: : There is a Compound Annual Growth rate of 18 to 20% for ACs over the last decade. Consumers also have developed a preference for energy efficient ones- 5 star and inverter ACs. Inverter ACs are the fast growing market segment.
Types: :Currently in the market there are various types of ACs with various star ratings out of which WIndow, Split, Floored and Cassette ACs are the most popular ones. The use of window ACs is decreasing whereas the Split AC sales are fast growing
Use a ceiling fan along with the AC to circulate the cool air around the room.
The indoor unit must be placed in a such a way that air is uniformly distributed throughout the room. Outdoor unit should be kept as close as possible to the indoor unit(maximum of 15 metres) to avoid losses of cooling effect.
Insulate the room level to prevent hot air entry and cool air leaving the room.Keep all the cupboards closed.
Use curtains and blinds to prevent direct sunlight exposure into the room
By setting the temperature setting to 1 degree higher you save 3-5% electricity.
Get the AC serviced at least once a year. Specifically check the refrigerant levels and measure air-flow. Clean the mats in a regular interval of 1 month.
Try not to keep any huge metallic instruments in the room as they affect the efficiency.
Power consumption: Lighting contributes to 17% of power consumption.So, there is a need for energy efficient lighting. CFL bulbs came into market as an energy efficient model. But now LEDs play the role of most efficient energy consumers. 12% of LED lights sold are consumed in India.
Statistics: : In the beginning of 2014, 1 out of 50 bulbs sold was a LED. By end of 2014, it has reached 1 in 20. LED market is expected to grow at CAGR of 32% between 2015-2020. From 2001-2010, CFL market share has increased by 30%. A 3 star LED bulb saves around Rs 42/- per year when it replaces a CFL and around Rs 318/- per year when it replaces an incandescent bulb. A 3 star LED bulb will also reduce 6.8 kg of CO2, when it replaces a CFL and around 51.5 kg of CO2 when it replaces an incandescent bulb .
Types: :These are roughly 4 types of lightings for households -CFL(including tubelights), halogen, LED and incandescent. For a brightness of 800 lumens, incandescent bulb uses 60W whereas CFL and LED use 20W and 9W respectively. LEDs use less energy and also have a longer life compared to other types. These are the reasons behind the growth in LED market.
One of the best energy-saving devices is the light switch. Turn off lights when not required.. As far as possible use task lighting, which focuses light where it's needed. A reading lamp, for example, lights only reading material rather than the whole room.
Generally lower wattage bulbs have a longer life because they are not so stressed by heat.
Consider employing infrared sensors, motion sensors, automatic timers, dimmers and solar cells wherever applicable, to switch on/off lighting circuits. Upto 40% reduction in energy consumption can be observed when these sensors are used in a private office.
A daylight sensor is also available which sets the brightness of bulbs depending on natural light available.
Replace your electricity-guzzling ordinary bulbs (incandescent lamps) with more efficient types. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) use up to 75 percent less electricity than incandescent lamps. LEDs use up to 50% less electricity than CFLs.
For a LED of small wattage(3W), use lesser beam angle(less than or equal to 30°) for better focus.
When bulbs are placed near to each other, use a small beam angle so that light beams do not intersect. When bulbs are placed at a distance from each other, use a larger beam angle so that the whole space gets illuminated.
Disposal of a CFL bulb should be done carefully because it contains mercury. It should be sent to hazardous waste collectors and not be disposed directly.
By using a ceiling fan along with a air-conditioner, the temperature setting of the AC can be set a couple degrees higher. (A temperature setting of 1 degree higher of AC reduces the electricity used by it by 3-5%).
The area of room and size of fan that needs to be installed must be in proportion for better circulation of air. Know more about some factors that are to be considered before buying a fan.
A ceiling fan once purchased stays for 10-15 years. But, with time it starts using more electricity.
A ceiling fan does not cool the room, it just blows away the warm air from around you. So it is recommended to turn off the fan when there is no one in the room.
Power consumed by a fan mostly depends on the speed at which it is operated.
Power consumption: Ceiling fans consume more than twice the electricity that is used by lights. The reason being, fans are used continuously unlike lights which are used only during nights. For an average household, a single fan uses about 4 units of electricity in a day.
Statistics: : Ceiling fans contribute to 70% of total fan market. Old model fans which did not use any efficient technology consumed 75-80W of power at full speed. But the modern ones use 45W of power for the same speed. Annual sales of ceiling fans are about 29 million in India. This shows the importance of ceiling fans in a normal Indian family.
Types: :Here we talk mainly about Standard fans and low profile fans. Standard fans are the ones which are found in most of the houses. They can be used on both flat and sloped ceilings. Low profile fans cannot make a huge air movement but help in circulating air-conditioned or heated air throughout the room.
Power consumption: In a typical household, refrigerators are in the top 3 on the list of power consumers, next only to air conditioners and lighting. Electricity used by refrigerators amounts to about 15-20% of the total consumption. The modern fridges use less power when compared to old ones because of short cooling cycles.
Statistics :Refrigerator market increased with a CAGR of 15.7% from 2010-2014. Refrigerators are rare in rural households, going from 1% in 1993 to 4% in 2001; from 12% to 28% in urban households during the same time.
Direct cool and frost free: Frost free fridges are more expensive than direct cool type. In long run frost free are going to dominate the market share. Direct cool requires fewer units of electricity but cannot cool as efficiently as a frost free refrigerator. When compared in terms of life expectancy, frost free are better compared to direct cool.
Single and double door: A double-door fridge has more capacity than a single-door but it is available at a higher price. For a person who uses freezer frequently, a double door with a top freezer would be the best option.
Hot foods consume more energy to cool down. So, avoid putting them in the fridge.
A refrigerator sucks heat from inside and releases it. It should be placed against a wall so that the heat released can easily escape. Temperature of surroundings must be cool for the fridge to work at minimum cost.
Keeping the door open for a longer time and also opening it frequently would consume more units.
Set the temperature of refrigerator around 4°C and freezer around 0°C. This is the most efficient way of using it.
Factors such as available space, ease of cleaning,family size and requirements,warranty and features available should be checked before buying a refrigerator.
While selecting size of your DG make sure that it satisfies your load demand
Never place fire components near by a DG.
Ensure proper ventilation, never run a generator indoor.
Noise: Consider the noise factor while selecting the DG.
Never run a DG under low fuel condition, which damage the set. There are few models available in the market with a special feature, automatic shutdown under low fuel conditions.
Better to stay away from the DG as it may release hazardous gases like carbon monoxide
Avoid loose wiring connections, diesel leakages
A diesel generator is the combination of diesel engine with an electric generator (often an alternator) to generate electrical energy. The packaged combination of a diesel engine, a generator and various ancillary devices (such as base, canopy, sound attenuation, control systems,circuit breakers, jacket water heaters and starting system) is referred to as a "generating set" or a "gen set" for short.Generating sets are selected based on the electrical load they are intended to supply.
Efficiency of diesel generator sets is expressed as a combined efficiency of its two sub-components. Typically, the combined efficiency of diesel generator sets varies between 30-55% while stand-alone efficiency of diesel engine and alternator ranges between 35-60% and 85-95% respectively.
A modern diesel plant will at its near-optimal 65-70% loading, generate 3 kWh (units) of electricity per litre.
India's diesel genset market has seen steady growth due to power supply shortages and unreliable grid supply. The following are some statistics pertaining to the diesel generator in India :
About 0.22 million number of diesel generator sets having combined generation capacity of about 17,000 MW sold in 2015.
The diesel generator market (up to 100 KVA) is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of around 11% in value terms during 2014-2018. As the demand for genset is growing progressively, the diesel genset market is expecting to reach worth of $2.4 billion by 2021.
Diesel gensets with ratings 5 KVA to 3000 KVA are available. The 5KVA to 75 KVA range diesel gensets are widely sold in Indian market due to its ease of availability, and low cost
They are the smallest sized generators that are used by many people for their portability. They deliver a power output of 3KVA to 15 KVA and can be used to power small appliances in the house. Also, due to their portability factor, these generators can be taken during outings or camping.
Residential Standby Generators:
These generators automatically restore power to your house within twenty seconds during load shedding. When power is restored, the generator switches off automatically. These standby generators can be stationed outside your house and have a high power rating, from 15KVA to 75 KVA. They are capable of working in any weather condition and are wired to your houses electrical system
Commercial Standby Generators:
These generators are suitable for business institutions, high rise buildings having more number of flats. They have a capacity of up to 1000KVA of power. These heavy-duty generators are powered by water-cooled diesel engines. They are equipped with automatic transfer switch, which immediately starts the generator when there is a power cut. These generators can be set up in large institutions, farms, building, nursing homes and hospitals among various others places.