Power consumption: Air Conditioners are the major consumers of power in homes as well as work places. Rating of an AC is measure by its tonnage. For example a 1.5 ton AC consumes around 1.5 units of electricity per hour. Based on their power consumption ACs are categorised into various star ratings by BEE(Bureau of Energy Efficiency).
Statistics: : There is a Compound Annual Growth rate of 18 to 20% for ACs over the last decade. Consumers also have developed a preference for energy efficient ones- 5 star and inverter ACs. Inverter ACs are the fast growing market segment.
Types: :Currently in the market there are various types of ACs with various star ratings out of which WIndow, Split, Floored and Cassette ACs are the most popular ones. The use of window ACs is decreasing whereas the Split AC sales are fast growing
Use a ceiling fan along with the AC to circulate the cool air around the room.
The indoor unit must be placed in a such a way that air is uniformly distributed throughout the room. Outdoor unit should be kept as close as possible to the indoor unit(maximum of 15 metres) to avoid losses of cooling effect.
Insulate the room level to prevent hot air entry and cool air leaving the room.Keep all the cupboards closed.
Use curtains and blinds to prevent direct sunlight exposure into the room
By setting the temperature setting to 1 degree higher you save 3-5% electricity.
Get the AC serviced at least once a year. Specifically check the refrigerant levels and measure air-flow. Clean the mats in a regular interval of 1 month.
Try not to keep any huge metallic instruments in the room as they affect the efficiency.
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Power consumption: In a typical household, refrigerators are in the top 3 on the list of power consumers, next only to air conditioners and lighting. Electricity used by refrigerators amounts to about 15-20% of the total consumption. The modern fridges use less power when compared to old ones because of short cooling cycles.
Statistics :Refrigerator market increased with a CAGR of 15.7% from 2010-2014. Refrigerators are rare in rural households, going from 1% in 1993 to 4% in 2001; from 12% to 28% in urban households during the same time.
Direct cool and frost free: Frost free fridges are more expensive than direct cool type. In long run frost free are going to dominate the market share. Direct cool requires fewer units of electricity but cannot cool as efficiently as a frost free refrigerator. When compared in terms of life expectancy, frost free are better compared to direct cool.
Single and double door: A double-door fridge has more capacity than a single-door but it is available at a higher price. For a person who uses freezer frequently, a double door with a top freezer would be the best option.
Hot foods consume more energy to cool down. So, avoid putting them in the fridge.
A refrigerator sucks heat from inside and releases it. It should be placed against a wall so that the heat released can easily escape. Temperature of surroundings must be cool for the fridge to work at minimum cost.
Keeping the door open for a longer time and also opening it frequently would consume more units.
Set the temperature of refrigerator around 4°C and freezer around 0°C. This is the most efficient way of using it.
Factors such as available space, ease of cleaning,family size and requirements,warranty and features available should be checked before buying a refrigerator.
Power consumption: In a family, entertainment is a significant power consumer. TVs generally use 80-400W energy depending on size and technology. Even the same size LCDs or plasmas may not use the same amount of energy.
Statistics : There is no difference between rural and urban areas in amount of TVs being used. Indian TV market lies 3rd in the world only next to USA and China. LED/LCD market has registered a CAGR(compounded annual growth rate) of 124.3% during 2011-2014. Most of the people are shifting from CRTs to LCD/LED because of minimal cost difference between them.
Generally, 3 types of TVs are discussed- CRT, LCD/LED, Plasma.
DLP(digital type processing) is another type of TV which is efficient at large sizes where as LCDs are efficient at small sizes.
Plasma consumes lot of energy. So, plasma should be prefered only when it is used for a short time period.
TVs when used in high brightness mode consume more energy than in normal mode.
Hours to define lifetime of a TV are based on its settings. Increasing brightness and contrast of a TV cut down watching hours.
A voltage regulator should be purchased to protect the TV from voltage fluctuations.
Optimum distance for watching TV(inches)= size of TV(in inches)*1.5
Distance from TV also depends on resolution. Optimum distance for a modern TV is less because it offers better resolution.
Choose the geyser capacity that suits your family so that power doesnt get wasted
An auto off option helps you in switching off the geyser when not required. It also doesnt allow the geyser to get burned out.
Standing losses are directly proportional to surface area. So, the bigger the water heater, the higher are the losses.
After some years, water may not get heated as before. This is due to sediments formed due to age.
For bathing purpose, temperature of 46℃ would be enough. Heating water to a higher temperature is just waste of energy.
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Power consumption: Geysers generally maintain a temperature of 40-75℃. Power consumption of a geyser depends on volume and temperature of water. Standing losses also account to a significant amount.
Statistics: In India, 30-60% of houses use an electric geyser. It is found that the geysers of 25 litres capacity are sold most. In 2002, the standing losses use to range between 0.79-1.447kWh. But now they have been decreased to 0.693kWh due to BEE star ratings.
Types: There are 2 types of geysers-tank and tankless. Both of them run on gas and electricity. Tank type geysers store water in a tank and heat them using electricity. Tankless type heat water instantly. Tankless have a longer life than tank type.
Power consumption: Lighting contributes to 17% of power consumption.So, there is a need for energy efficient lighting. CFL bulbs came into market as an energy efficient model. But now LEDs play the role of most efficient energy consumers. 12% of LED lights sold are consumed in India.
Statistics: : In the beginning of 2014, 1 out of 50 bulbs sold was a LED. By end of 2014, it has reached 1 in 20. LED market is expected to grow at CAGR of 32% between 2015-2020. From 2001-2010, CFL market share has increased by 30%. A 3 star LED bulb saves around Rs 42/- per year when it replaces a CFL and around Rs 318/- per year when it replaces an incandescent bulb. A 3 star LED bulb will also reduce 6.8 kg of CO2, when it replaces a CFL and around 51.5 kg of CO2 when it replaces an incandescent bulb .
Types: :These are roughly 4 types of lightings for households -CFL(including tubelights), halogen, LED and incandescent. For a brightness of 800 lumens, incandescent bulb uses 60W whereas CFL and LED use 20W and 9W respectively. LEDs use less energy and also have a longer life compared to other types. These are the reasons behind the growth in LED market.
One of the best energy-saving devices is the light switch. Turn off lights when not required.. As far as possible use task lighting, which focuses light where it's needed. A reading lamp, for example, lights only reading material rather than the whole room.
Generally lower wattage bulbs have a longer life because they are not so stressed by heat.
Consider employing infrared sensors, motion sensors, automatic timers, dimmers and solar cells wherever applicable, to switch on/off lighting circuits. Upto 40% reduction in energy consumption can be observed when these sensors are used in a private office.
A daylight sensor is also available which sets the brightness of bulbs depending on natural light available.
Replace your electricity-guzzling ordinary bulbs (incandescent lamps) with more efficient types. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) use up to 75 percent less electricity than incandescent lamps. LEDs use up to 50% less electricity than CFLs.
For a LED of small wattage(3W), use lesser beam angle(less than or equal to 30°) for better focus.
When bulbs are placed near to each other, use a small beam angle so that light beams do not intersect. When bulbs are placed at a distance from each other, use a larger beam angle so that the whole space gets illuminated.
Disposal of a CFL bulb should be done carefully because it contains mercury. It should be sent to hazardous waste collectors and not be disposed directly.
Maintenance and usage: Microbes multiply rapidly in damp and wet places. It is highly recommended that a leaky washing machine be serviced right away.
Hard water for wash cycles If you happen to use hard water (e.g. from borewells), get the washing machine serviced regularly. Scaling due to hard water deposits can clog the water pipes and slow down the water flow to a trickle. This will result in longer wash cycles resulting in the washing machine running longer and consuming more electricity.
Water factor: It explains the amount of water used by a washing machine in one wash.The higher the water factor, the more water the washing machine uses. The average water factor for the best front load washing machines is around 2.8, which equates roughly to 45 litres of water used per wash. Check the water factor of the machine before buying.
Power consumption: Washing machine is next after refrigerator when compared among kitchen appliances with respect to energy consumption. Power consumption depends on the type of washing machine that is used.
Statistics : 1.5 million washing machines were being sold in 2006 and it is expected that the number would reach 9 million by 2030. Reasons for improvement of washing machine industry is growing working women population and rapid urbanisation.
Semi and fully automatic: Fully automatic washing machines contributed to 33% of the total market share in 2007, but their market share increased to 59% by 2012. People prefer buying a fully automatic washing machine because it is easy and efficient to use.
Front and top loading: Front loading should be prefered if your laundry is very dirty and you do many loads a week. Top loading gives you the freedom to add laundry after the cycle has started.
By using a ceiling fan along with a air-conditioner, the temperature setting of the AC can be set a couple degrees higher. (A temperature setting of 1 degree higher of AC reduces the electricity used by it by 3-5%).
The area of room and size of fan that needs to be installed must be in proportion for better circulation of air. Know more about some factors that are to be considered before buying a fan.
A ceiling fan once purchased stays for 10-15 years. But, with time it starts using more electricity.
A ceiling fan does not cool the room, it just blows away the warm air from around you. So it is recommended to turn off the fan when there is no one in the room.
Power consumed by a fan mostly depends on the speed at which it is operated.
Power consumption: Ceiling fans consume more than twice the electricity that is used by lights. The reason being, fans are used continuously unlike lights which are used only during nights. For an average household, a single fan uses about 4 units of electricity in a day.
Statistics: : Ceiling fans contribute to 70% of total fan market. Old model fans which did not use any efficient technology consumed 75-80W of power at full speed. But the modern ones use 45W of power for the same speed. Annual sales of ceiling fans are about 29 million in India. This shows the importance of ceiling fans in a normal Indian family.
Types: :Here we talk mainly about Standard fans and low profile fans. Standard fans are the ones which are found in most of the houses. They can be used on both flat and sloped ceilings. Low profile fans cannot make a huge air movement but help in circulating air-conditioned or heated air throughout the room.
Using automatic heaters is more efficient than the normal ones.
Try not to keep any huge metallic instruments in the room as they affect the efficiency.
Read the manufacturer's instructions and confirm the clearances around the heater.
Don't install it below a towel bar or near curtains or any other fabrics that can catch on fire. Make sure that nothing flammable sits within 3 ft. in front of the heater.
Locate the thermostat away from the hot air. One foot above an existing light switch is a good choice. Avoid the wall directly above the heater and any exterior walls.
The heating element becomes very hot, check if safety is built in to prevent accidental contact with the element.
Power consumption: Room heaters are a saviour in the winter cold but all the comfort comes at a cost. They consume a lot of electricity which shoots up the winter bills. There are even ACs available to heat up the rooms. Some heater come with dual mode power settings. The higher power setting heats up the room faster.
Statistics: : Heaters are used in the northern part of India extensively as the winter temperatures are very low.The most used room heaters in India are 1500W and 2000W ones although a range of ratings are available in the market..
Types: : Some portable heaters can be used as a (portable) fan during summer.Some heaters come with a temperature setting which triggers auto shutdown after the desired temperature is reached.